Team races shall be sailed under The Racing Rules of Sailing as changed by this appendix. If umpires or observers will be used the sailing instructions shall so state.
D1 CHANGES TO THE RACING RULES
D1.1 The following rules are changed or added:
(a) Add to rule 18.4: 'This rule applies only if the inside boat established the overlap from clear astern.'
(b) Add new rule 22.3: 'Except when sailing a proper course, a boat shall not interfere with a boat on another leg or lap.'
(c) Add to rule 41: 'A boat that receives help from a team-mate does not break this rule.'
(d) If the sailing instructions so state, rule 17.2 is changed to: 'Except on a beat to windward, while a boat is less than two of her hull lengths from a leeward boat, she shall not sail below her proper course unless she gybes.'
D1.2 The following additional rules apply:
(a) When boats in different races meet, any change of course by a boat shall be consistent with complying with a rule and winning her own race.
(b) Right of way may be waived between team-mates provided that doing so does not directly affect a boat of the other team adversely.
(c) A boat damaged by a team-mate boat is not eligible for redress based on that damage.
D2 INTENTION TO PROTEST; ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF BREACHES OF
(a) A boat intending to protest shall hail the other boat immediately and promptly display a red flag.
(b) A boat that, while racing, may have broken a rule of Part 2, except rule 14, or rule D1 may take a penalty as provided by rules 44.1 and 44.2, except that only one turn is required. When an incident occurs at the finishing line or when an umpire's penalty is signalled at or beyond the finishing line, a boat shall not be recorded as having finished until she has completed her penalty and returned completely to the course side of the line before finishing.
(c) When after displaying a red flag a boat is satisfied that the other boat has taken a penalty in compliance with rule D2.1(b) she shall remove her red flag.
(d) The sailing instructions may state that rule D2.3(g) applies to all protests.
D2.2 Races Without Umpires or Observers
A boat that has displayed a red flag and then decides reasonably promptly that she, and not the other boat, was at fault shall immediately remove her flag, take a penalty in compliance with rule D2.1(b), and hail the other boat accordingly.
D2.3 Umpired Races
Races to be umpired shall be identified either in the sailing instructions or by the display of flag U no later than the warning signal.
(a) When a boat protests under a rule of Part 2, except rule 14, or under rule D1, 31.1, 42 or 44, she is not entitled to a hearing. Instead, when the protested boat fails either to acknowledge breaking a rule or to take a penalty, the protesting boat may display a yellow flag and request a decision by hailing 'Umpire'.
(b) An umpire shall signal the decision as follows:
- (1) a green flag means 'No penalty imposed; incident closed';
- (2) a red flag means 'One or more boats are penalized.' The umpire shall hail or signal to identify each boat to be penalized. The protesting boat shall then remove her flag.
(c) A boat penalized by an umpire's decision shall make two 360¡
turns (720¡) in compliance with rule 44.2 as changed by this
(d) When a boat has gained an advantage by breaking a rule or fails to take a penalty when required, an umpire may impose one or more additional 360¡ turn penalties by hailing her accordingly, or report the incident as provided in rule D2.3(e).
(e) When an incident involves reckless sailing, rule 14, or failure to comply with an umpire's decision, the umpire may report the incident to a protest committee which may further penalize the boat concerned. The umpire shall signal this intention by displaying a black flag and hailing appropriately.
(f) Rules 60.2 and 60.3 do not apply. The protest committee may call a hearing only on receipt of a report from an umpire as provided in rule D2.3(e) or under rule 69.
(g) Protests need not be in writing, and the protest committee may take evidence in any way it considers appropriate and communicate its decision orally.
(h) There shall be no requests for redress or to reopen a hearing or appeals by a boat arising from decisions or actions or non-actions by the umpires. The protest committee may decide to consider giving redress when it believes that an official boat may have seriously interfered with a competing boat.
D2.4 Races with Observers
Observers may be appointed by the race committee to observe the racing and give opinions on incidents when requested. If so, rule D2.3 applies except that
(a) a boat need not request an opinion or accept one, in which case any protest shall comply with and be decided under the rules of Part 5 as changed by this Appendix;
(b) an observer may display a yellow flag to signal that he has no opinion. If a boat then intends to protest she may do so by complying with the rules of Part 5 as changed by this Appendix.
D3 SCORING A RACE
D3.1 Each boat completing a race, whether or not rules 28.1 and 29.1 have been complied with, shall be scored points equal to her finishing place. All other boats shall be scored points equal to the number of boats entitled to race. In addition, a boat's score shall be increased for
|Rule broken||Penalty points|
|(a) rule 14, 28.1 or 29.1||10|
|(b) any other rule for which a penalty
has not been taken under rule
D2.1(b) or D2.3(c)
The protest committee may further increase a boat's score when it finds that she gained an advantage from breaking a rule. The team with the lowest total points wins. If there is a tie on points, the team having the combination of race scores that does not include a first place wins.
D3.2 When all boats of one team have finished or retired, the race committee may stop the race. The other team's boats shall be scored the points they would have received had they finished.
D3.3 When all the boats of a team fail to start in a race, each shall receive points equal to the number of boats entitled to race, and the boats of the other team shall be scored as if they had finished in the best positions.
D4 SCORING A SERIES
D4.1 A team racing series shall consist of races or matches. A match shall consist of two races between the same two teams. The team with the lower total points for the race or the match wins.
D4.2 When two or more teams are competing in a series consisting of races or matches, the series winner shall be the team winning the greatest number of races or matches. The other teams shall be ranked in order of number of wins. Tied matches shall count as half a win to each team.
D4.3 When necessary, ties in a completed series shall be broken using,
in order of precedence,
(a) the number of races or matches won when the tied teams met;
(b) the points scored when the tied teams met;
(c) if two teams remain tied, the last race between them;
(d) total points scored in all races against common opponents;
(e) a game of chance.
If a multiple tie is partially resolved by one of these, then the remaining tie shall be broken by starting again at rule D4.3(a).
D4.4 If a series is not completed, teams shall be ranked according to the results from completed rounds, and ties shall be broken initially using the results from races or matches between the tied teams in the incomplete round. If no round has been completed, teams shall be ranked in order of their race (or match) win-loss ratios. Thereafter, rule D4.3(a) to (e) shall be used to break ties.
D5 BREAKDOWNS WHEN BOATS ARE SUPPLIED BY THE ORGANIZING
D5.1 A boat suffering a breakdown shall display a red flag as soon as practicable and, if possible, continue racing.
D5.2 When the race committee decides that the boat's finishing position was made significantly worse, that the breakdown was not the fault of the crew, and that in the same circumstances a reasonably competent crew would not have been able to avoid the breakdown, it shall make as equitable a decision as possible, which may be to order the race to be resailed or, when the boat's finishing position was predictable, award her points for that position. In case of doubt about her position when she broke down, the doubt shall be resolved against her.
D5.3 A breakdown caused by defective equipment or a breach of a rule by
an opponent shall not normally be determined to be the fault of the crew, but
one caused by careless handling, capsizing or a breach by a boat of the same
team shall be. Any doubt about the fault of the crew shall be resolved in the